Different genes have different expression times but generally yes bacteria can carry out gene expression quicker because there are less regulatory mechanisms in place.

Viruses are not considered alive because while they can reproduce and evolve they can only do so inside a host and not on their own.
While we are organic machines and made up of molecules, atoms, etc that's just chemistry. The biology is how all these molecules work together, interact with each other, using energy, to make things happen. This doesn't happen in dead things. Only the chemical processes can take place in dead things (degradation).

(posted in Genes, Genetics and DNA)


All proteins don't contain all amino acids. mRNA and tRNA are most likely degraded and the nucleotides recycled. Most genes start and end with the start and stop codons but perhaps not all. Methionine may or may not be cleaved off in all proteins. Mutations can occur anywhere. Yes to your definition of a same sense mutation.

(posted in General Biology)

A lot of flavour is 'tasted' by smelling the food which you can't do when your nose is blocked.

Both those fields are fairly specialist so I'd imagine you'd need specialist training probably in the form of a masters degree. With a degree in biotech you can do pretty much anything that either uses your biotech knowledge or your transferable skills.

Depends on where you want to study but it might be difficult to find unis that do distance learning in this field because hands on skills are so important. You'll have to do some research.

Endothermic reactions can still occur at low temperatures. They will result in the surroundings becoming colder. I don't think there is a lowest temperature at which they can take place.

Lifespan is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors so while the new plant will inherit the genetic factors, it'll be exposed to different environmental ones.

They can do yes.

I can't find an exact answer because it depends on the animal, how long they're hibernating for and what conditions they're hibernating in but animals can accumulate up to 40% of their weight in additional fat in prep for hibernation.

That pretty much covers everything biology. Do some reading and research to work out what specifically interests you and maybe do a broad based degree like biology to work out where your interests lie.

This is a good place to start, specifically crossover:

The zygote will still carry the same genetic information but the environment in the surrogate may affect when and how genes are expressed.

Nerve impulses to and from different parts of the brain and spinal chord tell different parts of the body what to do and collect information about the environment.

I think the term cancer is used to describe a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth in organisms which have multiple types of cells and tissues in which this uncontrolled cell growth can affect function. While uncontrolled cell growth can occur in fungi and algae it doesn't really affect function as far as I know.

The ethics of this are highly questionable which is why this doesn't happen practically but yes adding in another organism's DNA will affect a human but how it does so will depend on a number of things such as what gene was added, whether it can be expressed in humans and what it does in humans.

(posted in Genes, Genetics and DNA)

Yes it can be depending on where the crossover happens and what alleles are involved.

Have a read of this:
http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-abou … lood-types

Different cells will divide at different rates and respond to stimuli differently. There are again a number of genetic and epigenetic factors which will determine when the cells stop dividing. Have a read of this about human cells:

We've answered a similar question before. See:
http://www.askabiologist.org.uk/answers … hp?id=8034

The short answer is that we don't really know. This is an area of active research and a straightforward answer isn't clear yet. Have a read of this:
http://www.news-medical.net/life-scienc … ation.aspx

Most polymerisation and depolymerisation happens at the plus end where GTP bound molecules are added and removed by hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
At the minus end are GTP bound molecules. Depolymerisation can occur when the GTP is hydrolysed to GDP (the GTP stabilises the microtubule).
Polymerisation at the plus end and deploymerisation at the plus and minus ends can all occur at different rates but when polymerisation at the plus end and deploymerisation at the minus end occur at the same rate treadmilling occurs.

They can be done using the same sample of DNA but the tests are different.

Have a read of this:
http://www.differencebetween.com/differ … ous-humor/

Here you go:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_o … some_count

I'm going to direct you to a friend's page who has been doing a lot of research around this because it directly affects him. He is very happy to talk to people so go ahead and get in touch if you have additional questions:

0.9% saline and 5% vinegar will get rid of most household microorganisms but there are some that will still persist so it depends on what you're trying to get rid of.

(posted in General Biology)

Cargo is anything that is carried by a particular protein and transported from one place to another. There isn't a specific biological definition for it.

Exosomes are extra cellular vesicles and in this case were isolated from plasma. The vesicles may carry, either on their surface or internally, markers which give clues about what types of cells they've come from which is how the authors have isolated them and worked out that they come from neuronal cells. However, depending on when you harvest cells you may still find exosomes inside them i.e the cells haven't released them yet.

By definition yes microorganisms can be producers, consumers and decomposers.

(posted in Birds)

This is a good article to read:
http://www.peta2.com/blog/are_eggs_chic … e_lowdown/

Our bodies are quite good to getting rid of bacteria and other nasties that may make us ill in our food. There's no science to the 5s rule as far as I know. If there's something nasty enough to make us ill then less than a second will do it. If there isn't then even 10-15s won't do it.


A lot of your basic questions can be answered by having a read of the relevant Wiki articles.

Just want to comment on a few things, others might add to this:

Gene expression is never as simple as 0 or 1. Genes may be expressed at different levels or different times as well.

Protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions affect this and guide the right proteins to the right places for them to act.

In terms of why things are far away from each other unfortunately I don't have a straightforward answer but my guess would be that if there is DNA damage in one area  everything associated with a particular gene would be affected if everything was in the same area but because they're spread out there's a level of protection. Again others may have different perspectives.

I'm not an expert but this sort of thing tends to be quite complicated and regulated by a number of genes and mechanisms so while the androgen receptor, it's distribution and sensitivity can have a role it won't be the only thing that has an effect on age of hair growth stimulation.

The enzyme will move from 3'-5' and read each base individually so in this case it'll read it as:

I'm not sure I understand your question and its context. Have a read of this article and come back if you have more questions:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%E2%8 … ur_protein

The wiki article I posted in response to your previous question is a good place to start.

Have a read of this article:

Research suggests that there is an effect on NMDA, dopamine and GABA receptors. There are some good reviews online. Try google.

Random mutations take place all the time and may or may not get repaired, passed on between generations or lead to viable offspring but they're what cause variability which is then subject to natural selection (positive or negative) over time.

mRNA exposter proteins move mature mRNA from nucleus into cytoplasm where the mRNA encounters ribosomes. Read more here:

This is a good article to read:

Have a read of this:
http://www.cell.com/trends/plant-scienc … 10)00156-1

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

You isolate an enzyme from an organism or source and purify it to get rid of anything you don't need.

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

There are several fruit with just one seed. Mango and avocado are ones that immediately come to mind...

The process isn't called cross breeding, it's called genetic engineering. This is already a possibility but there are several ethical considerations which may prevent/regulate its becoming a reality.

There are lots of examples of humans forcing out local wildlife, disrupting the local ecosystem or causing the extinction of certain species so overall the human population expanding is not a good thing.

(posted in Evolution)

Not all alleles are simply either dominant or recessive. You do get instances of co-dominance. Some features are also controlled by multiple alleles. There's also the inheritance of alleles to consider so this is a lot more complicated than just dominant and recessive.

Have a look at this article:

CO2 is a gas so once the gas flow mechanisms stop working it will all be released. If you're talking about carbon then yes it will be released once the tree is burned in the form of either CO2 or CO.