almost impossible to say. time will tell whether they are delayed by a few weeks or whether there has been some local environmental change to account for the absence.

beuutiful pictures thanks so much more sharing them with us.

the names you have used all look correct and I can't find anything more specific for the figs. there are lots of different tulips but for the one you have painted, the name looks correct (noting I'm not an expert in botany).

genetic variation/mutation still occurs in animals that reproduce asexually which is why they have evolved into other species over many millions of years. evolution acts equally on all living species and for the same reasons (random genetic variation followed by selection of altered phenotypic traits).

much of the nutrients in the food we consume will be absorbed (sugars, fats and protein). what is left is roughage and cellulose and that will very definitely have measurable calorific value. descriptions of the techniques for measuring that are available if you google the term

yes theoretically it is possible for the reasons you say. New species are being discovered all the time. That said a large reptile as you describe would be likely to travel reasonably widely making descriptions/sitings more likely, there would be fairly obvious skeletal remains and descriptions from local native populations.

the site below is a good place to start your research as is a google search "comparative development mammalian heart"

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

if you google the terms a few hybrids are mentioned specifically, sarracenia Hybrids. there are none described for the hybrid you suggest.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

Unless there was a near absence of oxygen as in a vacuum, formation of spores is most unlikely. I do not think you need to be worried, especially as the liquid has been disposed of and the container cleaned.

To note however, this is not a medical advice site so if you are concerned then you should consult a doctor

from what I can see in this low power image it looks more like a rock that happens to look a bit like a bird head.

please upload much more detailed and closeup images with a ruler or tape measure in each shot.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

all of the above suggestions are correct, noting biologists working on pheromones will mostly be non-humans and more likely to be rodents or insects. For a medical point of view yes it will principally be a subdivision of dermatology.

in addition the other 2 groups that immediately spring to mind who may work on odours are perfume manufacturers and forensic scientists.

neurons are activated or inhibited by neurotransmitters which bind to and act at specific cell surface receptors (which themselves are grouped into many very different classes includuing G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels).

Google or wikipedia are good places to start your research.

its is a naturally occurring herb and not a drug. thus it has not been studied in any detail nor is it covered by licencing regulations.

You are correct there are statements made on-line for both dietetic and antidiuretic properties. The evidence for those statements however is murky at best and no formal studies have been reported in the scientific literature.

it is possible that a lab might provide that sort of service on a commercial basis  - you would need to search the internet to investigate that further.

depends what you mean by "affected by sun".

Size is not the major determinant of skin cancer risk - it i mostly related to how well one wears skin protection/covers up and the very many genetic determinants of risk - very few of which are known to be related to height.

any idea that all insects/flies today are the same as those millions of years ago is just plain wrong!

just google "evolution flies/insects" and you will see numerous examples and details of the evolutionary changes that have occurred.

The genomes of all animals are constantly changing and mutating. Changes that are positive and provide a useful/beneficial change are selected for and the converse is equally true. Where habitats and populations are stable then the pressure for change is reduced but by no means removed.

correct but given the very few numbers of Megalania fossils known it is possible they did not physically coexist with the apex predator mammals you mention. Even if they did it may have been for a relatively short period of time. Lastly given the likely slow moving nature of the Megalania (see below) and that it was thought to be venomous (though that is not proven) it is possible it had its own sub-niche and thus again did not greatly directly compete with the mammals you mention.

Bottom line we just don't have enough information/fact on their habitats and periods they lived to say more. … iscus.html

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

no-one currently on the site has the expertise to answer your question. that said it is an abstruse area and to be frank most people/public neither know nor care!

there are hundreds of M tuberculosis proteins some of which will be part of or connected to the inner cell wall. The types of bond will vary from protein to protein.

there is no correct or accepted answer and doctors struggle with this just like everyone else (which vary between societal norms). In this case the gender determined genetics, reproductive organs and external sexual characteristics are all different.

sounds like the Matrix!

In the situation you describe (and leaving aside the almost certain impossibility of someone consciously not moving for years)  I would think the muscles would develop but be very atrophied, similar to someone with a severe spinal cord injury at a young age.

the url below (which I can't vouch for) says the combination is 6.2% of your body weight.

CRISPR is used to alter or delete a gene or a stretch of DNA. It can't be used (at least at present) to eliminate a whole species of bacteria.

there certainly are clear and reproducible genetic differences between the 2 groups that imply differences in the original locations of the groups. Of course admixture between them and with other local groupings over time is inevitable. See the links below for 2 good papers that should both be available to you. … 012-1235-6 … 9707613251

definitely not! humans are all members of the same species and their genes are almost identical. see link below for more details.

(posted in Evolution)

see … ntidae.php

(posted in General Biology)


i really wouldn't worry about it at this stage. the GCSE all seem very sensible. work hard get good grades and then do science A-levels, then take a good undergraduate degree at university in a biology or biomedical subject. Only then would you consider specialising in palaeontology at age 21 or more.

it really depends on your level of training and what sort of career you want. the link below is a good place to learn more … logist.htm

you are correct - the rate varies between tissues/cells and individuals and will be composite of environmental and endogenous factors (the most important in normal individuals as you say are error rates in mitosis). see below

now we are starting to mass sequence the genomes of large numbers of individuals it shows the differences starkly (so called polymorphisms rather than mutations, since the vast majority have no known functional effects). Thus there is no absolute "to start with" - we are all individuals with differences. … 9.864.html

SV and therfore cardiac output can be calculated for the right and left ventricles and the wikiepdia pages shows those figures. The CO for RV and LV in a normal individual is the same.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

they key word is theoretical. since none of this is possible as far as we know and its a fictional event its entirely up to you whether it would or would not be possible to revert a DNA change back to "normal". Certainly on the basis of genetic engineering as it exists in 2016 - it should be possible.

Biology is the study of living organisms so no. That said it massively impacts on many aspects of biology.

you have not asked a question other than would there be benefits of a triple helix as compared to double. we can't answer that since there is no evidence base to rely on. all we can say in your story is that it could theoretically be possible and thus might give greater storage capacity.

Since they are all the same species, yes.

the link below should help … ake_Venoms

(posted in General Biology)

thanks for your question and its great you are interested in biology. take a look at the link below and then do post again with more specific questions.

(posted in Genes, Genetics and DNA)


sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

your statement is incorrect. many animals and flowers have many more chromosomes and/or genes and/or size of the genome than humans.

interesting paper!

the simple answer to your question is there is at best a very small difference.

Energy drinks mostly contain sucrose/fructose which will get absorbed and broken down into monosaccharides in the small intestine rapidly. from there they reach the muscles within minutes.

(posted in Mammals)

the "paddles" are the scapulae ie shoulder blades bones that are disarticulated. difficult to say more given the state of the decomposition but yes could be a dog.

(posted in Research and Careers)

I note you previously asked the same question (see below). I don't think there is much else we can add other than to suggest you focus on doing well at University aim for a good degree in a biology field and then apply for jobs in the broad area of wildlife. You may feel very different about things in 3-4 years time and meanwhile don't give up hope! We wish you well with your career. … p?id=14821

great question and I am not sure there is an accepted time window when invasive becomes local - other than when a new ecological/ecosystem balance is achieved. It will vary enormously from habitat to habitat and multiple local factors will be at play.

(posted in Evolution)

1. what an individual will or will not acct or agree with is impossible to predict. It certainly would be contradictory!

2. very definitely yes - you need to read more about this using google and wikipedia

3. learn about it at university and then consider training as a school teacher or university lecturer. Having an interest in your spare time is also fine!

its a massively competitive field with only a very small number of opportunities worldwide to study them in the wild. Thus you need to be very realistic as to the difficulties in succeeding in the field you describe.

For now you need to concentrate on getting a very good undergraduate degree In a relevant field and than a Masters and PhD. work eperience will also be very difficult other than in a lab/zoo.

(posted in Evolution)

simple and short answer. No!

Our understanding of the brain works and how to alter thoughts and the ability to "imagine" are still rudimentary (at best).