So I know the biochemical pathway for ATP synthesis in mitochondria. The thing is, many biochemical pathways are dependant on other types of nucleotide-triphosphates; elongation factors in protein synthesis are GTP-powered; phospholipid synthesis is CTP-powered; glycogen synthesis is UTP-powered.

What are the biochemical pathways for CTP, GTP and UTP synthesis? Are they produced the same way as ATP in mitochondria? Is there TTP and if there is, what is it used for?

A little bit of searching on-line will show you that the metabolic pathways for the pyrimidines CTP, GTP and UTP are extensively covered! There is a thymidine triphosphate, but strictly speaking it is dTTP, deoxythymidine triphosphate. Thymidine triphosphate is required for the synthesis of DNA. dTTP is not made by the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. e.g., in E.coli dTTP is made after UDP or CDP is converted to dUDP or dCDP (which can then be deaminated to dUTP) by action of the enzyme ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (sometimes abbreviated as rNDPase). dUTP is converted to dUMP (by dUTPase), dUMP to dTMP (by thymidylate synthase), and dTMP is converted to TDP and dTTP by kinases for use in DNA synthesis. There are other ways (i.e., thymidine kinase salvage pathway for dTMP) for its recycling.

Last edited by Steve Lolait (15th Apr 2011 15:57:13)